Here you can find all the publications from the members of the INTRIM consortium on the topic of trained immunity. Let us know if we missed any.

From the end of 2022 onwards, trained immunity was indexed as a MeSH term on Pubmed. Please note that indexing is not yet complete for all papers on Trained Immunity but we won't be updating this page anymore.


Vierboom MPM, Verreck FAW et al. Stronger induction of trained immunity by mucosal BCG or MTBVAC vaccinationn compared to standard intradermal vaccination. Cell Rep Med. 2021 2(1):100185. PMID: 33521699

DiNardo AR, Netea MG, Musher DM. Postinfectious epigenetic immune modifications - a double-edged sword. N Engl J Med. 2021 384(3):261-270. PMID: 33471978

Thiem K, Stienstra R et al. Hyperglycemic memory of innate immune cells promotes in vitro proinflammatory responses of human monocytes and murine macrophages. J Immunol. 2021 206(4):807-813. PMID: 33431659

Palma C, Matarese G et al. Caloric restriction promotes immunometabolic reprogramming leading to protection from tuberculosis. Cell Metab. 2021 33(2):300-318. PMID: 33421383

Netea MG, van der Meer JW, van Crevel R. BCG vaccination in health care providers and the protection against COVID-19. J Clin Invest. 2021 131(2):e145545. PMID: 33306484

Divangahi M, Netea MG et al. Trained immunity, tolerance, priming and differentiation: distinct immunological processes. Nat Immunol. 2021 22(1):2-6. PMID: 33293712

Fanucchi S, Mhlanga MM et al. The intersection of epigenetics and metabolism in trained immunity. Immunity 2021 54(1):32-45. PMID: 33220235

Flores-Gomez D, Bekkering S, Netea MG, Riksen NP. Trained immunity in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2021 41(1):62-69

Tercan H, Riksen NP, Bekkering S et al. Trained immunity: long-term adaptation in innate immune responses. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2021 41(1):55-61. PMID: 33086868

Mitroulis I, Hajishengallis G, Chavakis T. Trained immunity and cardiometabolic disease: the role of bone marrow. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2021 41(1):48-54. PMID: 33207931

Sheedy FJ, Divangahi M. Targeting immunometabolism in host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Immunology. 2021 162(2):145-159. PMID: 33020911

Hajishengallis G, Chavakis T. Local and systemic mechanisms linking periodontal disease and inflammatory comorbidities. Nat Rev Immunol. 2021. PMID: 33510490

Teufel LU, Joosten LAB, Dos Santos JC. Immunotherapeutic potential of interleukin-32 and trained immunity for leishmaniasis treatment. Trends Parasitol. 2021 37(2):130-141. PMID: 33082090


De Wals P, Menzies D, Divangahi M. Can BCG be useful to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic? A Canadian perspective. Can J Public Health. 2020 111(6):939-944. PMID: 33211246

Khan N, Divangahi M et al. M. tuberculosis reprograms hematopoietic stem cells to limit myelopoiesis and impair trained immunity. Cell. 2020 183(3):752-770. PMID: 33125891

Hajishengallis G, Li X, Chavakis T. Immunometabolic control of hematopoiesis. Mol Aspects Med. 2020 100923. PMID: 33160640

Neeland MR, Saffery R et al. Hyper-inflammatory monocyte activation following endotoxin exposure in food allergic infants. Front Immunol. 2020 11:567981. PMID: 33072108

Thiem K, Stienstra R et al. A high glycemic burden relates to function and metabolic alterations of human monocytes in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2020 69912):2735-2746. PMID: 32978233

Domínguez-Andrés J, van Crevel R, Divangahi M, Netea MG. Designing the next generation of vaccines: relevance for future pandemics. mBio. 2020 11(6):e02616-20. PMID: 33443120

Rother N, van der Vlag J, Duivenvoorden R et al. Hydroxychloroquine inhibits the trained innate immune response to interferons. Cell Rep Med. 2020 1(9):100146. PMID: 33377122

Ferreira AV, Dominguéz-Andrés J, Netea MG. The role of cell metabolism in innate immune memory. J Innate Immun. 2020 1-9. PMID: 33378755

Sohrabi Y, Netea MG, Joosten LAB et al. Trained immunity as a novel approach against COVID-19 with a focus on Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine: mechanisms, challenges and perspectives. Clin Transl Immunology 2020. 9(12):e1228. PMID: 33363733

van Crevel R, van der Meer JWM, Netea MG. Is it possible that BCG vaccine protects against COVID-19? Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2020 164:D5552 (Dutch). PMID: 33331729

Walk J, Stunnenberg HG, Sauerwein RW et al. Controlled human malaria infection induces long-term functional changes in monocytes. Front Mol Biosci. 2020 7:604553. PMID: 33324683

Moorlag SJCFM, Netea MG et al. BCG vaccination induces long-term functional reprogramming of human neutrophils. Cell Rep. 2020 33(7):108387 PMID: 33207187

Noz MP, Bekkering S, Riksen NP et al. Reprogramming of bone marrow myeloid progenitor cells in patients with severe coronary artery disease. eLife. 2020 9:e60939. PMID: 33168134

Priem B, Mulder WJM et al. Trained immunity-promoting nanobiologic therapy suppresses tumor growth and potentiates checkpoint inhibition. Cell. 2020 183(3):786-801. PMID: 33125893

Kalafati L, Chavakis T et al. Innate immune training of granulopoiesis promotes anti-tumor activity. Cell. 2020 183(3):771-785. PMID: 33125892

Madsen AMR, Benn CS et al. Using BCG vaccine to enhance non-specific protection of health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in Denmark. Trials. 2020 21(1):799 PMID: 32943115

Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Netea MG et al. Activate: Randomized clinical trial of BCG vaccination against infection in the elderly. Cell. 2020 183(2):315-323. PMID: 32941801

Mantovani A, Netea MG. Trained Innate Immunity, Epigenetics and Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020 383(11):1078-1080. PMID: 32905684

Riksen NP, Netea MG. Immunometabolic control of trained immunity. Mol Aspects Med. 2020 2:100897. PMID: 32891423

Moorlag SJCFM, Netea MG et al. Safety and COVID-19 symptoms in individuals recently vaccinated with BCG: a retrospective cohort study. Cell Rep MEd. 2020. 1(5):100073. PMID: 32838341

Messina NL, Netea MG, Curtis N. The impact of human single nucleotide polymorphisms on Bacillus Calmette-Guérin responses. Vaccine. 2020 38(40):6224-6235. PMID: 32826104

Bulut O, Kilic G, Domínguez-Andrés J, Netea MG. Overcoming immune dysfunction in the elderly: trained immunity as a novel approach. Int Immunol. 2020 32(12):741-753. PMID: 32766848

de Bree LCJ, Netea MG et al. Circadian rhythm influences induction of trained immunity by BCG vaccination. J Clin Invest. 2020 130(10):5603-5617. PMID: 32692732

Koeken VACM, Netea MG et al. BCG vaccination in humans inhibits systemic inflammation in a sex-dependent manner. J Clin Invest. 2020 130(10):5591-5602. PMID: 32692728

van Puffelen JH, Vermeulen SH et al. Trained immunity as a molecular mechanism for BCG immunotherapy in bladder cancer. Nat Rev Urol. 2020 17(9):513-525. PMID: 32678343

Mourits VP, Netea MG et al. BCG-induced trained immunity in healthy individuals: the effect of plasma muramyl dipeptide concentrations. J Immunol Res. 2020:5812743. PMID: 32626788

Cirovic B, Schiltzer A et al. BCG vaccination in humans elicits trained immunity via the hematopoietic progenitor compartment. Cell Host Microbe. 2020 28(2):322-334. PMID: 32544459

Koeken VACM, van Crevel R et al. The effect of BCG vaccination on aalveolar macrophages obtained from induced sputum from healthy volunteers. Cytokine. 2020 133:155135. PMID: 32534356

Ten Doesschate T, Netea MG et al. Two randomized controlled trials of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination to reduce absenteeism among health care workers and hospital admission by elderly persons during the COVID-19 pandemic: A structured summary of the study protocols for two randomised controlled trials. Trials. 2020 21(1):481. PMID: 32503602

Domínguez-Andrés J, Netea MG. The specifics of innate immune memory. Science. 2020 368(6495):1052-1053. PMID: 32499424

Imran S, Novakovic B et al. A potential role for epigenetically mediated trained immunity in food allergy. iScience. 2020 23(6):101171. PMID: 32480123

Yan C, Zheng KY et al. Roles of trained immunity in the pathogenesis of cholangiopathies: a therapeutic target. Hepatology. 2020 72(5):1838-1850. PMID: 32463941

Netea MG, Bonten M et al. Trained immunity: a tool for reducing susceptibility to and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cell. 2020 181(5):969-977. PMID: 32437659

Moorlag SJCFM, Netea MG et al. b-glucan induces protective trained immunity against mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: a key role for IL-1. Cell Rep. 2020 31(7):107634. PMID: 32433977

O'Neill LAJ, Netea MG. BCG-induced trained immunity: can it offer protection against COVID-19? Nat Rev Immunol. 2020 20(6):335-337. PMID: 32393823

Curtis N, Sparrow A, Ghebreyesus TA, Netea MG. Considering BCG vaccination to reduce the impact of COVID-19. Lancet. 2020 395(10236):1545-1546. PMID: 32359402

Keating ST, Riksen NP et al. Rewiring of glucose metabolism defines trained immunity induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein. J Mol Med (Berl). 2020 98(6):819-831. PMID: 32350546

Keating ST, Riksen NP et al. The Set7 Lysine Methyltransferase regulates plasticity in oxidative phosphorylation necessary for trained immunity induced by b-glucan. Cell Rep. 2020 31(3):107548. PMID: 32320649

Bekkering S, Burgner DP et al. Trained immunity: linking obesity and cardiovascular disease acrosse the life-course? Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2020 31(5):378-389, PMID: 32305098

van der Heijden CDCC, Riksen NP et al. Catecholamines induce trained immunity in monocytes in vitro and in vivo. Circ Res. 2020 127(2): 269-283. PMID: 32241223

Kar UK, Joosten LAB. Training the trainable cells of the immune system and beyond. Nat Immunol. 2020 21(2):115-119. PMID: 31925389

Tarancón R, Netea MG et al. New live attenuated tuberculosis vaccine MTBVAC induces trained immunity and confers protection against experimental lethal pneumonia. PLoS Pathog. 2020 16(4):e1008404. PMID: 32240273

de Laval B, Sieweke MH et al. C/EBPβ-Dependent Epigenetic Memory Induces Trained Immunity in Hematopoietic Stem Cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2020 Mar 10. PMID: 32169166

Netea MG, Latz E et al. Defining trained immunity and its role in health and disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2020 20(6):375-388. PMID: 32132681

Namakula R, Netea MG et al. Monocytes from neonates and adults have a similar capacity to adapt their cytokine production after previous exposure to BCG and β-glucan. PLoS One. 2020 Feb 21;15(2):e0229287. PMID: 32084227

Blok BA, Netea MG et al. Differential effects of BCG vaccine on immune responses induced by vi polysaccharide typhoid fever vaccination: an explorative randomized trial. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 17. PMID: 32065303

Domínguez-Andrés J, Netea MG et al. Advances in understanding molecular regulation of innate immune memory. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2020 63:68-75. PMID: 31991317

Ciarlo E, Netea MG, Roger T et al. Trained immunity confers broad-spectrum protection against bacterial infections. J Infect Dis. 2019 Dec 31. pii: jiz692. PMID: 31889191

Cabău G, Crișan TO, Joosten LAB et al. Urate-induced immune programming: Consequences for gouty arthritis and hyperuricemia. Immunol Rev. 2020 Mar;294(1):92-105. PMID: 31853991

Freyne B, Messina NL, Curtis N et al. Neonatal BCG vaccination reduces interferon gamma responsiveness to heterologous pathogens in infants from a randomised controlled trial. J Infect Dis. 2020 Jan 28. pii: jiaa030. PMID: 31990350

Mourits VP, Arts R, Joosten L et al.The role of Toll-like receptor 10 in modulation of trained immunity. Immunology 2020 Mar;159(3):289-297. PMID: 31671203

Bannister S, Messina NL, Curtis N et al. The emerging role of epigenetics in the immune response to vaccination and infection: a systematic review. Epigenetics. 2020 Mar 17:1-39. PMID: 31914857


Messina NL, Curtis N et al. Study protocol for the Melbourne Infant Study: BCG for Allergy and Infection Reduction (MIS BAIR), a randomised controlled trial to determine the non-specific effects of neonatal BCG vaccination in a low-mortality setting. BMJ Open. 2019 Dec 15;9(12):e032844. PMID: 31843845

King IL, Divangahi M. Editorial: Evolving Mechanisms of Disease Tolerance. Front Immunol. 2019 Dec 20;10:2974. PMID: 31921211

Ciarlo E, Netea MG, Roger T et al. Trained immunity confers broad-spectrum protection against bacterial infections. J Infect Dis. 2019 Dec 31. PMID: 31889191

Grigoriou M, Mitroulis I, Boumpas DT et al. Transcriptome reprogramming and myeloid skewing in haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Nov 28. PMID: 31780527

Christ A, Lauterbach M, Latz E. Western Diet and the Immune System: An Inflammatory Connection. Immunity. 2019 Nov 19;51(5):794-811. PMID: 31747581

van der Heijden CDCC, Netea MG, Riksen NP et al. Arterial wall inflammation and increased hematopoietic activity in patients with primary aldosteronism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Dec 25. PMID: 31875423

Wolters TLC, Netea-Maier R et al. Persistent inflammation  and endothelial dysfunction in patients with treated acromegaly. Endocr Connect. 2019 8(12):1553-1567. PMID: 31751301

Berendsen ML, Netea MG, van der Ven AJ et al. BCG vaccination is associated with reduced malaria prevalence in children under the age of 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa. BMJ Glob Health. 2019 Nov 14;4(6):e001862. PMID: 31798997

Hajishengallis G, Mitroulis I, Chavakis T et al. Trained innate immunity and its implications for mucosal immunity and inflammation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1197:11-26. PMID: 31732931

Netea MG. Hard to remember: Long-term functional defects in myeloid cells and wound repair after sepsis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2019 Nov; 39(11):2205-2206. PMID: 31644353

Noz MP, Thijssen DHJ, Riksen NP et al. Sixteen-week physical activity intervention in subjects with increased cardiometabolic risk shifts innate immune function towards a less pro-inflammatory state. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019 Nov 5;8(21):e013764. PMID: 31623506

Riksen NP. Trained immunity and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2019 Oct;30(5):365-400 PMID: 31335332

Ochando J, Netea MG, Mulder WJM et al. Trained immunity in organ transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2019. Sept 27. PMID: 31561273

Dos Santos JC, Ribeiro-Dias F, Joosten LAB et al. b-glucan-induced trained immunity protects against leishmania braziliensis infection: a crucial role for IL-32. Cell Rep. 2019 Sept 3;28(10):2659-2672. PMID: 31484076

Khader SA, Xavier RJ,  Netea MG et al. Targeting innate immunity for tuberculosis vaccination. J Clin Invest. 2019 Sept 3;129(9):3482-3491. PMID: 31478909

Chavakis T, Mitroulis I, Hajishengalilis G. Hematopoietic progenitor cells as integrative hubs for adaptation to and fine-tuning of inflammation. Nat Immunol. 2019 Jul; 20(7):802-811. PMID: 31213716

Zimmermann P, Curtis N et al. The Effect of Maternal Immunisation During Pregnancy on Infant Vaccine Responses. EClinicalMedicine. 2019 Jul 26;13:21-30. PMID: 31517260

Placek K, Schultze JL, Aschenbrenner AC. Epigenetic reprogramming of immune cells in injury, repair, and resolution. J Clin Invest. 2019 Jul 22;129(8):2994-3005. PMID: 31329166

Bekkering S, Riksen NP et al. Treatment with statins does not revert trained immunity in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Cell Metab. 2019 Jul 2;30(1):1-2. PMID: 31204280

Ferreira AV, Netea MG, Domínguez-Andrés J. Itaconate as an immune modulator. Aging (Albany NY). 2019 Jun 24;11(12):3898-3899. PMID: 31235675

Domínguez-Andrés J, Netea MG et al. Bromodomain inhibitor I-BET151 suppresses immune responses during fungal-immune interaction. Eur J Immunol. 2019 Jun 17. PMID: 31206650

Dos Santos JC, Joosten LAB et al. Non-specific effects of BCG in protozoal infections: Tegumentary Leishmaniasis and Malaria. Clin Microbiol Infec. 2019. Jun 15. pii:S1198-743X(19)30292-7. PMID: 31212075

Zimmermann P, Curtis N et al; MIS BAIR group. The influence of neonatal Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunisation on heterologous vaccine responses in infants. Vaccine. 2019 Jun 19;37(28):3735-3744. PMID: 31153688

Placek K, Schultze JL, Netea MG. Immune memory characteristics of innate lymphoid cells. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2019 Jun; 32(3):196-203. PMID: 31021952

Grondman I, Netea MG, Gresnigt MS et al. Endotoxin-induced immunotolerance is associated with loss of monocyte metabolic plasticity and reduction of oxidative burst. J Leukoc Biol. 2019 Jun 6; PMID: 31169935

Domínguez-Andrés J, Netea MG. Metabolic adaptation sets the fate of regulatory macrophages. Cell Metab. 2019 Jun 4;29(6):1240-1242. PMID: 31167120

Gyssens IC, Netea MG. Heterologous effects of vaccination and trained immunity. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019 May 31. PMID: 31158520

van der Heijden CDCC, Netea MG, Riksen NP et al. Aldosterone induces trained immunity: the role of fatty acid synthesis. Cardiovasc Res. 2019 May 22. PMID: 31119285

Moorlag SJCFM, Arts RJW, van Crevel R, Netea MG. Non-specific effects of BCG vaccine on viral infections. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019 May 2. PMID: 31055165

Bekkering S, Burgner DP, Moss TJ et al. Postnatal inflammation following intrauterine inflammation exacerbates the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. Clin Sci (Lond). 2019 May 30;133(10):1185-1196. PMID: 31088858

van Tuijl J, Bekkering S, Riksen NP et al. Immunometabolism orchestrates training of innate immunity in atherosclerosis. Cardiovasc Res. 2019 May 3. PMID: 31050710

Raijmakers RPH, Jansen AFM, Netea MG, Bleeker-Rovers CP et al. A possible link between recurrent upper respiratory tract infections and lower cytokine production in patients with Q fever fatigue syndrome. Eur J Immunol. 2019 Apr. PMID: 31001808

Neidhart M, Karouzakis E et alOligomeric S100A4 Is Associated With Monocyte Innate Immune Memory and Bypass of Tolerance to Subsequent Stimulation With Lipopolysaccharides. Front Immunol. 2019 Apr. PMID: 31037071

Mulder WJM, Ochando J, Joosten LAB, Fayad ZA, Netea MG. Therapeutic targeting of trained immunity. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2019 Apr. PMID: 30967658

Verrall AJ, Schneider M, Ussher JE, van Crevel R et al. Early clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is associated with increased innate immune responses. J Infect Dis 2019 Apr. PMID: 30958547

Blok BA, de Bree LCJ, Benn CS, Netea MG et al. Interacting non-specific immunological effects of BCG and tdapf vaccinations: an explorative randomized trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Mar. PMID: 30919883

Blok BA, Jensen KJ, Benn CS, Netea MG et al. Opposite effects of Vaccinia and modified Vaccinia Ankara on trained immunity. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019 Mar;38(3):449-456. PMID: 30719592

Koeken VACM, Verall AJ, Netea MG, Hill PC, van Crevel R. Trained innate immunity and resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019 Feb. PMID: 30802436

Walk J, de Bree LCJ, Netea MG, Sauerweing RW et al. Outcomes of controlled human malaria infection after BCG vaccination. Nat Commun. 2019 Feb 20;10(1):874. PMID: 30787276

Schultze JL, Mass E, Schlitzer A. Emerging Principles in Myelopoiesis at Homeostasis and during Infection and Inflammation. Immunity. 2019 Feb 19;50(2):288-301. PMID: 30784577

Fok ET, Davignon L, Fanucchi S, Mhlanga MM. The lncRNA connection between cellular metabolism and epigenetics in trained immunity. Front Immunol. 2019 Jan 29;9:3184. PMID: 30761161

Fanucchi S, Mhlanga MM. Lnc-ing Trained immunity to Chromatin Architecture. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2019 Jan 24;7:2. PMID: 30733945

Cleophas MCP, Ratter JM, Netea MG, Joosten LAB et alEffects of oral butyrate supplementation on inflammatory potential of circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells in healthy and obese males. Sci Rep. 2019 Jan 28;9(1):775. PMID: 30692581

Thiem K, Stienstra R, Riksen NP, Keating ST. Trained immunity and diabetic vascular disease. Clin Sci (Lond). 2019 Jan 18;133(2):195-203. PMID: 30659160

Netea MG, Schlitzer A, Joosten LAB, Schultze JL et alInnate and Adaptive Immune Memory: an Evolutionary Continuum in the Host's Response to Pathogens. Cell Host Microbe. 2019 Jan 9;25(1):13-26. PMID: 30629914

Fanucchi S, Fok ET, Sung WK, Mhlanga MM et al. Immune genes are primed for robust transcription by proximal long noncoding RNAs located in nuclear compartments. Nat Genet. 2019 Jan; 51(1):138-150. PMID: 30531872


Sánchez-Ramón S, Conejero, Palomares Ó, Subiza JL et al. Trained Immunity-Based Vaccines: A New Paradigm for the Development of Broad-Spectrum Anti-infectious Formulations. Front Immunol. 2018 dec 17;9:2936. PMID: 30619296

Leijte GP, Kiers D, Kox M, Pickkers P et alTreatment with acetylsalicylic acid reverses endotoxin tolerance in humans in vivo: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Crit Care Med. 2018 Dec 21. PMID: 30585832

Noz MP, Ter Telgte A, de Leeuw FE, Riksen NP et alTrained Immunity Characteristics are associated with progressive cerebral small vessel disease. Stroke 2018. Dec; 49(12):2910-2917. PMID: 30571420

Penkov S, Mitroulis I, Hajishengallis G, Chavakis T. Immunometabolic Crosstalk: An Ancestral Principle of Trained Immunity? Trends Immunol. 2018. Dec;

Stienstra R, Netea MG. Firing Up Glycolysis: BCG Vaccination Effects on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Trens Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Dec; 29(12):813-814. PMID: 30327169

Cime-Castillo J, Arts RJW, Netea MG, Lanz-Mendoza H et alDNA Synthesis is activated in mosquitoes and human monocytes during the induction of innate immune memory. Front Immunol. 2018 Nov 30;9:2834. PMID: 30555493

Divangahi M. Are tolerance and training required to end TB? Nat Rev Immunol. 2018 Nov;18(11):661-663. PMID: 30267017

Netea MG, Joosten LAB. Trained Immunity and Local Innate Immune Memory in the Lung. Cell 2018 Nov 29;175(6):1463-1465. PMID: 30500533

de Bree C, van Crevel R, Netea MG. H4:IC31 Vaccine or BCG Revaccination for Tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2018 Nov 15;379(20):1969. Commentary. PMID: 30428296

Braza MS, van Leent MMT, Netea MG, Mulder WJM, Ochando J et al. Inhibiting Inflammation with Myeloid Cell-Specific Nanobiologics Promotes Organ Transplant Acceptance. Immunity. 2018 Nov 20;49(5):819-828.e6. PMID: 30413362

Riksen NP, Stienstra R. Metabolism of innate immune cells: impact on atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2018 Oct;29(5):359-367. PMID: 30020200

Hoogeveen RM, Nahrendorf M, Catapano AL, Bekkering S et al. Monocyte and haematopoietic progenitor reprogramming as common mechanism underlying chronic inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. Eur Heart J. 2018 Oct 7;39(38):3521-3527. PMID: 29069365

van der Heijden CDCC, Noz MP, Riksen NP et al. Epigenetics and Trained Immunity. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2018 Oct 10;29(11):1023-1040. PMID: 28978221

Domínguez-Andrés J, Novakovic B, Stunnenberg H, Netea MG et al. The Itaconate Pathway is a Central Regulatory Node Linking Innate Immune Tolerance and Trained Immunity. Cell Metab. 2018 Oct 1. pii: S1550-4131(18)30568-0. PMID: 30293776

Van Splunter M, Netea MG, van Neerven RJJ et al. Induction of Trained Innate Immunity in Human Monocytes by Bovine Milk and Milk-Derived Immunoglobulin G. Nutrients. 2018 Sep 27;10(10). pii: E1378. PMID: 30262772

Domínguez-Andrés J, Joosten LA, Netea MG. Induction of innate immune memory: the role of cellular metabolism. Curr Opin Immunol. 2018 Sep 18;56:10-16. PMID: 30240964

Groh L, Netea MG, Riksen NP, Keating ST. Getting to the marrow of trained immunity. Epigenomics. 2018 Sep;10(9):1151-1154. PMID: 30238777

Riksen NP, Netea MG. Be aware, innate immune cells remember. Aging (Albany NY). 2018 Sep 12;10(9):2218-2219. PMID: 30215600

de Bree CLCJ, Benn CS, Netea MG et al. The impact of sex hormones on BCG-induced trained immunity. J Leukoc Biol. 2018 Sep;104(3):573-578. PMID: 30153369

Mourits VP, Wijkmans JC, Joosten LA, Netea MG. Trained immunity as a novel therapeutic strategy. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2018 Aug;41:52-58. PMID: 29702467

de Bree CLCJ, van Crevel R, Netea MG et al. Non-specific effects of vaccines: Current evidence and potential implications. Semin Immunol. 2018 Jul 11. pii: S1044-5323(18)30011-3. PMID: 30007489

Dominguez-Andrés J, Netea MG. Long-term reprogramming of the innate immune system. J Leukoc Biol. 2018 Jul 12. PMID: 29999546

Bauer M, Weis S, Netea MG, Wetzker R. Remembering Pathogen Dose: Long-Term Adaptation in Innate Immunity. Trends Immunol. 2018 Jun;39(6):438-445. PMID: 29716792

Gourbal B, Netea MG et al. Innate immune memory: an evolutionary perspective. Immunol Rev. 2018 May;283(1):21-40. PMID: 29664574

Joosten SA, Netea MG, Ottenhoff TH et al. Mycobacterial growth inhibition is associated with trained innate immunity. J Clin Invest. 2018 May 1;128(5):1837-1851. PMID: 29461976

Freyne B, Kollman T, Curtis N et al. Neonatal BCG Vaccination Influences Cytokine Responses to Toll-like Receptor Ligands and Heterologous Antigens. J Infect Dis. 2018 May 5;217(11):1798-1808. PMID: 29415180

de Bree CLCJ, Netea MG, Dulos J et al. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-Induced Trained Immunity is Not Protective for Experimental Influenza A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) Infection in Mice. Front Immunol. 2018 Apr 30;9:869. Erratum in: Front Immunol. 2018 Oct 25;9:2471. PMID: 29760700

Wendeln AC, Degenhardt K, Fischer A, Neher JJ et al. Innate immune memory in the brain shapes neurological disease hallmarks. Nature 2018 Apr;556(7701):332-338. PMID: 29643512

Arts RJW, Huang PK, Netea MG, Cheng SC et alHigh-Mobility Group Nucleosome-Binding Protein 1 as Endogenous Ligand Induces Innate Immune Tolerance in a TLR4-Sirtuin-1 Dependent Manner in Human Blood Peripheral Mononuclear Cells. Front Immunol. 2018 Mar 14;9:526. PMID: 29593748

Leentjens J, Bekkering, Burgner DP, Riksen NP et al. Trained Innate Immunity as a Novel Mechanism Linking Infection and the Development of Atherosclerosis. Circ Res. 2018 Mar 2;122(5):664-669. PMID: 29367213

Schrum JE, Golenbock DT et al. Cutting Edge: Plasmodium falciparum Induces Trained Innate Immunity. J Immunol. 2018 Feb 15;200(4):1243-1248. PMID: 29330325

Arts RJW, Joosten LAB, Netea MG. The Potential Role of Trained Immunity in Autoimmune and Autoinflammatory Disorders. Front Immunol. 2018 Feb 20;9:298. PMID: 29515591

Christ A, Netea MG, Schultze JL, Latz E et al. Western Diet Triggers NLRP3-Dependent Innate Immune Reprogramming. Cell. 2018 Jan 11;172(1-2):162-175.e14. PMID: 29328911

Mitroulis I, Netea MG, Chavakis T et al. Modulation of Myelopoiesis Progenitors Is an Integral Component of Trained Immunity. Cell. 2018 Jan 11;172(1-2):147-161.e12. PMID: 29328910

Bekkering S, Arts RJW, Riksen NP, Netea MG. Metabolic Induction of Trained Immunity through the Mevalonate Pathway. Cell. 2018 Jan 11;172(1-2):135-146.e9. PMID: 29328908

Arts RJW, Moorlag SJCFM, van Crevel R, Netea MG et al. BCG Vaccination Protects against Experimental Viral Infection in Humans through the Induction of Cytokines Associated with Trained Immunity. Cell Host Microbe. 2018 Jan 10;23(1):89-100.e5. PMID: 29324233

Moorlag SJCFM, Röring RJ, Joosten LAB, Netea MG. The role of the interleukin-1 family in trained immunity. Immunol Rev. 2018 Jan;281(1):28-39. PMID: 29248003

Nissen TN, Birk NM, Benn CS, Pryds O et al. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination at birth and in vitro cytokine responses to non-specific stimulation. A randomized clinical trial. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018 Jan;37(1):29-41. PMID: 28890996


Netea MG, Joosten LAB, van der Meer JWM. Hypothesis: stimulation of trained immunity as adunctive immunotherapy in cancer. J Leukoc Biol. 2017 Dec;102(6):1323-1332. PMID: 29018149

Biering-Sørensen S, Aaby P, Fisker AB, Benn CS et al. Early BCG-Denmark and Neonatal Mortality Among Infants Weighing <2500 g: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Oct 1;65(7):1183-1190. PMID: 29579158

Darboe F, Adetifa JU, Sutherland JS, Flanagan KL et alMinimal Sex-Differential Modulation of Reactivity to Pathogens and Toll-Like Receptor Ligands following Infant Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Russia Vaccination. Front Immunol. 2017 Sep 8;8:1092. PMID: 28951731

Stienstra R, Netea-Maier RT, Riksen NP, Joosten LAB, Netea MG. Specific and Complex Reprogramming of Cellular Metabolism in Myeloid Cells during Innate Immune Responses. Cell Metab. 2017 Jul 5;26(1):142-156. PMID: 28683282

Smith SG, Kleinnijenhuis, J, Netea MG, Dockrell HM. Whole Blood Profiling of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-Induced Trained Innate Immunity in Infants Identifies Epidermal Growth Factor, IL-6, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-AB/BB, and Natural Killer Cell Activation. Front Immunol. 2017 Jun 6;8:644. PMID: 28634479

Keating ST, Riksen NP, Netea MG. Planarians SET New Paths for Innate Immune Memory. EBioMedicine 2017 Jun;20:7-8. PMID: 28487051

Nissen TN, Birk NM, Benn CS, Pryds O; Calmette Study Group. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth and antibody responses to childhood vaccines. A randomised clinical trial. Vaccine. 2017 Apr 11;35(16):2084-2091. PMID: 28318766

Nankabirwa V, Tumwine JK, Netea MG, Sommerfelt H et alEarly versus late BCG vaccination in HIV-1-exposed infants in Uganda: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2017 Mar 31;18(1):152. PMID: 28359325

Netea MG, van der Meer JW. Trained Immunity: An Ancient Way of Remembering. Cell Host Microbe. 2017 Mar 8;21(3):297-300.  PMID: 28279335


Arts RJW, Novakovic B, Xavier RJ, Netea MG et al. Glutaminolysis and Fumarate Accumulation Integrate Immunometabolic and Epigenetic Programs in Trained Immunity. Cell Metab. 2016 Dec 13;24(6):807-819. PMID: 27866838

van Diepen JA, Thiem K, Tack CJ, Netea MG et alDiabetes propels the risk for cardiovascular disease: sweet monocytes becoming aggressive? Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016 Dec;73(24):4675-4684. PMID: 27469259

Bekkering S, Blok BA, van Crevel R, Netea MG et al. In Vitro Experimental Model of Trained Innate Immunity in Human Primary Monocytes. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2016 Dec 5;23(12):926-933. Erratum in: Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2017 May 5;24(5):. PMID: 27733422

Arts RJW, Carvalho A, van Crevel R, Netea MG et alImmunometabolic Pathways in BCG-Induced Trained Immunity. Cell Rep. 2016 Dec 6;17(10):2562-2571. PMID: 27926861

Stevens WB, Netea MG, Kater AP, van der Velden WJ. 'Trained immunity': consequences for lymphoid malignancies. Haematologica. 2016 Dec;101(12):1460-1468. PMID: 27903713

Bekkering S, van den Munckhof I, Gomes ME, Riksen NP et al. Innate immune cell activation and epigenetic remodeling in symptomatic and asymptomatic atherosclerosis in humans in vivo. Atherosclerosis. 2016 Nov;254:228-236. PMID: 27764724

Novakovic B, Habibi E, Logie C, Stunnenberg HG et al. B-Glucan Reverses the Epigenetic State of LPS-Induced Immunological Tolerance. Cell. 2016 Nov 17;167(5):1354-1368.e14. PMID: 27863248

Arts RJ, Joosten LA, Netea MG. Immunometabolic circuits in trained immunity. Semin Immunol. 2016 Oct;28(5):425-430. PMID: 27686054

Arts RJ, Netea MG. Adaptive Characteristics of Innate Immune Responses in Macrophages. Microbiol Spectr. 2016 Aug;4(4). PMID: 27726767

Netea MG, Joosten LA, van der Meer JW. Adaptation and memory in innate immunity. Semin Immunol. 2016 Aug;28(4):317-8. PMID: 27502012

van der Valk FM, Bekkering S, Riksen NP, Stroes ES et alOxidized Phospholipids on Lipoprotein(a) Elicit Arterial Wall Inflammation and an Inflammatory Monocyte Response in Humans. Circulation. 2016 Aug 23;134(8):611-24. PMID: 27496857

Christ A, Bekkering S, Latz E, Riksen NP. Long-term activation of the innate immune system in atherosclerosis. Semin Immunol. 2016 Aug;28(4):384-93. PMID: 27113267

Saadatian-Elahi M, Aaby P, Greenberg M, Warren W et alHeterologous vaccine effects. Vaccine. 2016 Jul 25;34(34):3923-30. PMID: 27312214

Berendsen MLT, Smits J, Netea MG, van der Ven A. Non-specific Effects of Vaccines and Stunting: Timing May Be Essential. EBioMedicine. 2016 Jun;8:341-348. PMID: 27428443

Goodridge HS, Ahmed SS, van Crevel R, Wilson CB et alHarnessing the beneficial heterologous effects of vaccination. Nat Rev Immunol. 2016 Jun;16(6):392-400. PMID: 27157064

Crișan TO, Netea MG, Joosten LA. Innate immune memory: Implications for host responses to damage-associated molecular patterns. Eur J Immunol. 2016 Apr;46(4):817-28. PMID: 26970440

Lerm M, Netea MG. Trained immunity: a new avenue for tuberculosis vaccine development. J Intern Med. 2016 Apr;279(4):337-46. PMID: 26602369

Netea MG et al. Trained immunity: A program of innate immune memory in health and disease. Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):aaf1098. PMID: 27102489

Farber DL, Netea MG, Rajewsky K, Zinkernagel RM et al. Immunological memory: lessons from the past and a look to the future. Nat Rev Immunol. 2016 Feb;16(2):124-8. PMID: 26831526


Arts RJ, Blok BA, van Crevel R, Netea MG et alLong-term in vitro and in vivo effects of γ-irradiated BCG on innate and adaptive immunity. J Leukoc Biol. 2015 Dec;98(6):995-1001. PMID: 26082519

Leentjens J, Kox M, Pickkers P, Netea MG et alBCG Vaccination Enhances the Immunogenicity of Subsequent Influenza Vaccination in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study. J Infect Dis. 2015 Dec 15;212(12):1930-8. PMID: 26071565

van der Meer JW, Joosten LA, Riksen N, Netea MG. Trained immunity: A smart way to enhance innate immune defence. Mol Immunol. 2015 Nov;68(1):40-4. PMID: 26597205

Blok BA, Arts RJ, Benn CS, Netea MG et al. Trained innate immunity as underlying mechanism for the long-term, nonspecific effects of vaccines. J Leukoc Biol. 2015 Sep;98(3):347-56. PMID: 26597205

Ifrim DC, Quintin J, van de Veerdonk FL, Netea MG et alDefective trained immunity in patients with STAT-1-dependent chronic mucocutaneaous candidiasis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2015 Sep;181(3):434-40. PMID: 25880788

Netea MG, Latz E, Mills KH, O'Neill LA. Innate immune memory: a paradigm shift in understanding host defense. Nat Immunol. 2015 Jul;16(7):675-9. PMID: 26086132

Bekkering S, Joosten LA, Netea MG, Riksen NP et alThe epigenetic memory of monocytes and macrophages as a novel drug target in atherosclerosis. Clin Ther. 2015 Apr 1;37(4):914-23. PMID: 25704108

Jensen KJ, Larsen N, Flanagan KL, Benn CS et alHeterologous immunological effects of early BCG vaccination in low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau: a randomized-controlled trial. J Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 15;211(6):956-67. PMID: 25210141

Hamers LA, Kox M, Netea MG, Pickkers P et alGamma-irradiated bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination does not modulate the innate immune response during experimental human endotoxemia in adult males. J Immunol Res. 2015; 2015:261864. PMID: 25883989

Kleinnijenhuis J, van Crevel R, Netea MG. Trained immunity: consequences for the heterologous effects of BCG vaccination. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Jan;109(1):29-35. PMID: 25573107


Kleinnijenhuis J, Quintin J, van Crevel R, Netea MG et alBCG-induced trained immunity in NK cells: Role for non-specific protection to infection. Clin Immunol. 2014 Dec;155(2):213-9. PMID: 25451159

Netea MG, van Crevel R. BCG-induced protection: effects on innate immune memory. Semin Immunol. 2014 Dec;26(6):512-7. PMID: 25444548

Bekkering S, Joosten LA, Netea MG, Riksen NP. Trained innate immunity as a mechanistic link between sepsis and atherosclerosis. Crit Care. 2014 Nov 25;18(6):645. PMID: 25609403

Netea MG. Immunological memory in innate immunity. J Innate Immun. 2014;6(2):117-8. PMID: 24335162

Kleinnijenhuis J, Quintin J, van Crevel R, Netea MG et al. Long-lasting effects of BCG vaccination on both heterologous Th1/Th17 responses and innate trained immunity. J Innate Immun. 2014;6(2):152-8. PMID: 24192057

Buffen K, Oosting M, Netea MG, Joosten LA et alAutophagy controls BCG-induced trained immunity and the response to intravesical BCG therapy for bladder cancer. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Oct 30;10(10):e1004485. PMID: 25356988

Saeed S, Quintin J, Netea MG, Stunnenberg HG et alEpigenetic programming of monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and trained innate immunity. Science. 2014 Sep 26;345(6204):1251086. PMID: 25258085

Cheng SC, Quintin J, Xavier RJ, Netea MG et almTOR- and HIF-1α-mediated aerobic glycolysis as metabolic basis for trained immunity. Science. 2014 Sep 26;345(6204):1250684. PMID: 25258083

Quintin J, Cheng SC, van der Meer JW, Netea MG. Innate immune memory: towards a better understanding of host defense mechanisms. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014 Aug;29:1-7. PMID: 24637148

Bekkering S, Quintin J, Netea MG, Riksen NP et alOxidized low-density lipoprotein induces long-term proinflammatory cytokine production and foam cell formation via epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014 Aug;34(8):1731-8. PMID: 24903093

Ifrim DC, Quintin J, van der Meer JW, Netea MG et alTrained immunity or tolerance: opposing functional programs induced in human monocytes after engagement of various pattern recognition receptors. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Apr;21(4):534-45. PMID: 24521784

Levy O, Netea MG. Innate immune memory: implications for development of pediatric immunomodulatory agents and adjuvanted vaccines. Pediatr Res. 2014 Jan;75(1-2):184-8. PMID: 24352476


Netea MG. Training innate immunity: the changing concept of immunological memory in innate host defence. Eur J Clin Invest. 2013 Aug;43(8):881-4. PMID: 23869409

Bekkering S, Joosten LA, Netea MG, Riksen NP et al. Trained innate immunity and atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2013 Dec;24(6):487-92. PMID: 24184939

Benn CS, Netea MG, Selin LK, Aaby P. A small jab - a big effect: nonspecific immunomodulation by vaccines. Trends Immunol. 2013 Sep;34(9):431-9. PMID: 23680130


Kleinnijenhuis J, Quintin J, van Crevel R, Netea MG et al. Bacille Calmette-Guerin induces NOD2-dependent nonspecific protection from reinfection via epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 23;109(43):17537-42. PMID: 22988082

Quintin J, Saeed S, Stunnenberg HG, Netea MG. Candida albicans infection affords protection against reinfection via functional reprogramming of monocytes. Cell Host Microbe. 2012 Aug 16;12(2):223-32. PMID: 22901542


Netea MG, Quintin J, van der Meer JW. Trained immunity: a memory for innate host defense. Cell Host Microbe. 2011 May 19;9(5):355-61. PMID: 21575907