Here you can find all the publications from the members of the INTRIM consortium on the topic of trained immunity. Let us know if we missed any.


Penkov S, Mitroulis I, Hajishengallis G, Chavakis T. Immunometabolic Crosstalk: An Ancestral Principle of Trained Immunity? Trends Immunol. 2018. Dec;

Stienstra R, Netea MG. Firing Up Glycolysis: BCG Vaccination Effects on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Trens Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Dec; 29(12):813-814. PMID: 30327169

Braza MS, van Leent MMT, Netea MG, Mulder WJM, Ochando J et al. Inhibiting Inflammation with Myeloid Cell-Specific Nanobiologics Promotes Organ Transplant Acceptance. Immunity. 2018 Nov 20;49(5):819-828.e6. PMID: 30413362

Riksen NP, Stienstra R. Metabolism of innate immune cells: impact on atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2018 Oct;29(5):359-367. PMID: 30020200

Hoogeveen RM, Nahrendorf M, Catapano AL, Bekkering S et al. Monocyte and haematopoietic progenitor reprogramming as common mechanism underlying chronic inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. Eur Heart J. 2018 Oct 7;39(38):3521-3527. PMID: 29069365

van der Heijden CDCC, Noz MP, Riksen NP et al. Epigenetics and Trained Immunity. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2018 Oct 10;29(11):1023-1040. PMID: 28978221

Domínguez-Andrés J, Novakovic B, Stunnenberg H, Netea MG et al. The Itaconate Pathway is a Central Regulatory Node Linking Innate Immune Tolerance and Trained Immunity. Cell Metab. 2018 Oct 1. pii: S1550-4131(18)30568-0. PMID: 30293776

Van Splunter M, Netea MG, van Neerven RJJ et al. Induction of Trained Innate Immunity in Human Monocytes by Bovine Milk and Milk-Derived Immunoglobulin G. Nutrients. 2018 Sep 27;10(10). pii: E1378. PMID: 30262772

Domínguez-Andrés J, Joosten LA, Netea MG. Induction of innate immune memory: the role of cellular metabolism. Curr Opin Immunol. 2018 Sep 18;56:10-16. PMID: 30240964

Groh L, Netea MG, Riksen NP, Keating ST. Getting to the marrow of trained immunity. Epigenomics. 2018 Sep;10(9):1151-1154. PMID: 30238777

Riksen NP, Netea MG. Be aware, innate immune cells remember. Aging (Albany NY). 2018 Sep 12;10(9):2218-2219. PMID: 30215600

de Bree CLCJ, Benn CS, Netea MG et al. The impact of sex hormones on BCG-induced trained immunity. J Leukoc Biol. 2018 Sep;104(3):573-578. PMID: 30153369

de Bree CLCJ, van Crevel R, Netea MG et al. Non-specific effects of vaccines: Current evidence and potential implications. Semin Immunol. 2018 Jul 11. pii: S1044-5323(18)30011-3. PMID: 30007489

Dominguez-Andrés J, Netea MG. Long-term reprogramming of the innate immune system. J Leukoc Biol. 2018 Jul 12. PMID: 29999546

Bauer M, Weis S, Netea MG, Wetzker R. Remembering Pathogen Dose: Long-Term Adaptation in Innate Immunity. Trends Immunol. 2018 Jun;39(6):438-445. PMID: 29716792

de Bree CLCJ, Netea MG, Dulos J et al. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-Induced Trained Immunity is Not Protective for Experimental Influenza A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) Infection in Mice. Front Immunol. 2018 Apr 30;9:869. Erratum in: Front Immunol. 2018 Oct 25;9:2471. PMID: 29760700

Mourits VP, Wijkmans JC, Joosten LA, Netea MG. Trained immunity as a novel therapeutic strategy. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2018 Aug;41:52-58. PMID: 29702467

Gourbal B, Netea MG et al. Innate immune memory: an evolutionary perspective. Immunol Rev. 2018 May;283(1):21-40. PMID: 29664574

Arts RJW, Huang PK, Netea MG, Cheng SC et al. High-Mobility Group Nucleosome-Binding Protein 1 as Endogenous Ligand Induces Innate Immune Tolerance in a TLR4-Sirtuin-1 Dependent Manner in Human Blood Peripheral Mononuclear Cells. Front Immunol. 2018 Mar 14;9:526. PMID: 29593748

Arts RJW, Joosten LAB, Netea MG. The Potential Role of Trained Immunity in Autoimmune and Autoinflammatory Disorders. Front Immunol. 2018 Feb 20;9:298. PMID: 29515591

Joosten SA, Netea MG, Ottenhoff TH et al. Mycobacterial growth inhibition is associated with trained innate immunity. J Clin Invest. 2018 May 1;128(5):1837-1851. PMID: 29461976

Freyne B, Kollman T, Curtis N et al. Neonatal BCG Vaccination Influences Cytokine Responses to Toll-like Receptor Ligands and Heterologous Antigens. J Infect Dis. 2018 May 5;217(11):1798-1808. PMID: 29415180

Leentjens J, Bekkering, Burgner DP, Riksen NP et al. Trained Innate Immunity as a Novel Mechanism Linking Infection and the Development of Atherosclerosis. Circ Res. 2018 Mar 2;122(5):664-669. PMID: 29367213

Schrum JE, Golenbock DT et al. Cutting Edge: Plasmodium falciparum Induces Trained Innate Immunity. J Immunol. 2018 Feb 15;200(4):1243-1248. PMID: 29330325

Christ A, Netea MG, Schultze JL, Latz E et al. Western Diet Triggers NLRP3-Dependent Innate Immune Reprogramming. Cell. 2018 Jan 11;172(1-2):162-175.e14. PMID: 29328911

Mitroulis I, Netea MG, Chavakis T et al. Modulation of Myelopoiesis Progenitors Is an Integral Component of Trained Immunity. Cell. 2018 Jan 11;172(1-2):147-161.e12. PMID: 29328910

Bekkering S, Arts RJW, Riksen NP, Netea MG. Metabolic Induction of Trained Immunity through the Mevalonate Pathway. Cell. 2018 Jan 11;172(1-2):135-146.e9. PMID: 29328908

Arts RJW, Moorlag SJCFM, van Crevel R, Netea MG et al. BCG Vaccination Protects against Experimental Viral Infection in Humans through the Induction of Cytokines Associated with Trained Immunity. Cell Host Microbe. 2018 Jan 10;23(1):89-100.e5. PMID: 29324233

Moorlag SJCFM, Röring RJ, Joosten LAB, Netea MG. The role of the interleukin-1 family in trained immunity. Immunol Rev. 2018 Jan;281(1):28-39. PMID: 29248003

Nissen TN, Birk NM, Benn CS, Pryds O et al. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination at birth and in vitro cytokine responses to non-specific stimulation. A randomized clinical trial. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018 Jan;37(1):29-41. PMID: 28890996


Netea MG, Joosten LAB, van der Meer JWM. Hypothesis: stimulation of trained immunity as adunctive immunotherapy in cancer. J Leukoc Biol. 2017 Dec;102(6):1323-1332. PMID: 29018149

Biering-Sørensen S, Aaby P, Fisker AB, Benn CS et al. Early BCG-Denmark and Neonatal Mortality Among Infants Weighing <2500 g: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Oct 1;65(7):1183-1190. PMID: 29579158

Darboe F, Adetifa JU, Sutherland JS, Flanagan KL et alMinimal Sex-Differential Modulation of Reactivity to Pathogens and Toll-Like Receptor Ligands following Infant Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Russia Vaccination. Front Immunol. 2017 Sep 8;8:1092. PMID: 28951731

Stienstra R, Netea-Maier RT, Riksen NP, Joosten LAB, Netea MG. Specific and Complex Reprogramming of Cellular Metabolism in Myeloid Cells during Innate Immune Responses. Cell Metab. 2017 Jul 5;26(1):142-156. PMID: 28683282

Smith SG, Kleinnijenhuis, J, Netea MG, Dockrell HM. Whole Blood Profiling of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-Induced Trained Innate Immunity in Infants Identifies Epidermal Growth Factor, IL-6, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-AB/BB, and Natural Killer Cell Activation. Front Immunol. 2017 Jun 6;8:644. PMID: 28634479

Keating ST, Riksen NP, Netea MG. Planarians SET New Paths for Innate Immune Memory. EBioMedicine 2017 Jun;20:7-8. PMID: 28487051

Nissen TN, Birk NM, Benn CS, Pryds O; Calmette Study Group. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth and antibody responses to childhood vaccines. A randomised clinical trial. Vaccine. 2017 Apr 11;35(16):2084-2091. PMID: 28318766

Nankabirwa V, Tumwine JK, Netea MG, Sommerfelt H et alEarly versus late BCG vaccination in HIV-1-exposed infants in Uganda: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2017 Mar 31;18(1):152. PMID: 28359325

Netea MG, van der Meer JW. Trained Immunity: An Ancient Way of Remembering. Cell Host Microbe. 2017 Mar 8;21(3):297-300.  PMID: 28279335


Arts RJW, Novakovic B, Xavier RJ, Netea MG et al. Glutaminolysis and Fumarate Accumulation Integrate Immunometabolic and Epigenetic Programs in Trained Immunity. Cell Metab. 2016 Dec 13;24(6):807-819. PMID: 27866838

van Diepen JA, Thiem K, Tack CJ, Netea MG et alDiabetes propels the risk for cardiovascular disease: sweet monocytes becoming aggressive? Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016 Dec;73(24):4675-4684. PMID: 27469259

Bekkering S, Blok BA, van Crevel R, Netea MG et al. In Vitro Experimental Model of Trained Innate Immunity in Human Primary Monocytes. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2016 Dec 5;23(12):926-933. Erratum in: Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2017 May 5;24(5):. PMID: 27733422

Arts RJW, Carvalho A, van Crevel R, Netea MG et alImmunometabolic Pathways in BCG-Induced Trained Immunity. Cell Rep. 2016 Dec 6;17(10):2562-2571. PMID: 27926861

Stevens WB, Netea MG, Kater AP, van der Velden WJ. 'Trained immunity': consequences for lymphoid malignancies. Haematologica. 2016 Dec;101(12):1460-1468. PMID: 27903713

Bekkering S, van den Munckhof I, Gomes ME, Riksen NP et al. Innate immune cell activation and epigenetic remodeling in symptomatic and asymptomatic atherosclerosis in humans in vivo. Atherosclerosis. 2016 Nov;254:228-236. PMID: 27764724

Novakovic B, Habibi E, Logie C, Stunnenberg HG et al. B-Glucan Reverses the Epigenetic State of LPS-Induced Immunological Tolerance. Cell. 2016 Nov 17;167(5):1354-1368.e14. PMID: 27863248

Arts RJ, Joosten LA, Netea MG. Immunometabolic circuits in trained immunity. Semin Immunol. 2016 Oct;28(5):425-430. PMID: 27686054

Arts RJ, Netea MG. Adaptive Characteristics of Innate Immune Responses in Macrophages. Microbiol Spectr. 2016 Aug;4(4). PMID: 27726767

Netea MG, Joosten LA, van der Meer JW. Adaptation and memory in innate immunity. Semin Immunol. 2016 Aug;28(4):317-8. PMID: 27502012

van der Valk FM, Bekkering S, Riksen NP, Stroes ES et alOxidized Phospholipids on Lipoprotein(a) Elicit Arterial Wall Inflammation and an Inflammatory Monocyte Response in Humans. Circulation. 2016 Aug 23;134(8):611-24. PMID: 27496857

Christ A, Bekkering S, Latz E, Riksen NP. Long-term activation of the innate immune system in atherosclerosis. Semin Immunol. 2016 Aug;28(4):384-93. PMID: 27113267

Saadatian-Elahi M, Aaby P, Greenberg M, Warren W et alHeterologous vaccine effects. Vaccine. 2016 Jul 25;34(34):3923-30. PMID: 27312214

Berendsen MLT, Smits J, Netea MG, van der Ven A. Non-specific Effects of Vaccines and Stunting: Timing May Be Essential. EBioMedicine. 2016 Jun;8:341-348. PMID: 27428443

Goodridge HS, Ahmed SS, van Crevel R, Wilson CB et alHarnessing the beneficial heterologous effects of vaccination. Nat Rev Immunol. 2016 Jun;16(6):392-400. PMID: 27157064

Crișan TO, Netea MG, Joosten LA. Innate immune memory: Implications for host responses to damage-associated molecular patterns. Eur J Immunol. 2016 Apr;46(4):817-28. PMID: 26970440

Lerm M, Netea MG. Trained immunity: a new avenue for tuberculosis vaccine development. J Intern Med. 2016 Apr;279(4):337-46. PMID: 26602369

Netea MG et al. Trained immunity: A program of innate immune memory in health and disease. Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):aaf1098. PMID: 27102489

Farber DL, Netea MG, Rajewsky K, Zinkernagel RM et al. Immunological memory: lessons from the past and a look to the future. Nat Rev Immunol. 2016 Feb;16(2):124-8. PMID: 26831526


Arts RJ, Blok BA, van Crevel R, Netea MG et alLong-term in vitro and in vivo effects of γ-irradiated BCG on innate and adaptive immunity. J Leukoc Biol. 2015 Dec;98(6):995-1001. PMID: 26082519

Leentjens J, Kox M, Pickkers P, Netea MG et alBCG Vaccination Enhances the Immunogenicity of Subsequent Influenza Vaccination in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study. J Infect Dis. 2015 Dec 15;212(12):1930-8. PMID: 26071565

van der Meer JW, Joosten LA, Riksen N, Netea MG. Trained immunity: A smart way to enhance innate immune defence. Mol Immunol. 2015 Nov;68(1):40-4. PMID: 26597205

Blok BA, Arts RJ, Benn CS, Netea MG et al. Trained innate immunity as underlying mechanism for the long-term, nonspecific effects of vaccines. J Leukoc Biol. 2015 Sep;98(3):347-56. PMID: 26597205

Ifrim DC, Quintin J, van de Veerdonk FL, Netea MG et alDefective trained immunity in patients with STAT-1-dependent chronic mucocutaneaous candidiasis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2015 Sep;181(3):434-40. PMID: 25880788

Netea MG, Latz E, Mills KH, O'Neill LA. Innate immune memory: a paradigm shift in understanding host defense. Nat Immunol. 2015 Jul;16(7):675-9. PMID: 26086132

Bekkering S, Joosten LA, Netea MG, Riksen NP et alThe epigenetic memory of monocytes and macrophages as a novel drug target in atherosclerosis. Clin Ther. 2015 Apr 1;37(4):914-23. PMID: 25704108

Jensen KJ, Larsen N, Flanagan KL, Benn CS et alHeterologous immunological effects of early BCG vaccination in low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau: a randomized-controlled trial. J Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 15;211(6):956-67. PMID: 25210141

Hamers LA, Kox M, Netea MG, Pickkers P et alGamma-irradiated bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination does not modulate the innate immune response during experimental human endotoxemia in adult males. J Immunol Res. 2015; 2015:261864. PMID: 25883989

Kleinnijenhuis J, van Crevel R, Netea MG. Trained immunity: consequences for the heterologous effects of BCG vaccination. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Jan;109(1):29-35. PMID: 25573107


Kleinnijenhuis J, Quintin J, van Crevel R, Netea MG et alBCG-induced trained immunity in NK cells: Role for non-specific protection to infection. Clin Immunol. 2014 Dec;155(2):213-9. PMID: 25451159

Netea MG, van Crevel R. BCG-induced protection: effects on innate immune memory. Semin Immunol. 2014 Dec;26(6):512-7. PMID: 25444548

Bekkering S, Joosten LA, Netea MG, Riksen NP. Trained innate immunity as a mechanistic link between sepsis and atherosclerosis. Crit Care. 2014 Nov 25;18(6):645. PMID: 25609403

Netea MG. Immunological memory in innate immunity. J Innate Immun. 2014;6(2):117-8. PMID: 24335162

Kleinnijenhuis J, Quintin J, van Crevel R, Netea MG et al. Long-lasting effects of BCG vaccination on both heterologous Th1/Th17 responses and innate trained immunity. J Innate Immun. 2014;6(2):152-8. PMID: 24192057

Buffen K, Oosting M, Netea MG, Joosten LA et alAutophagy controls BCG-induced trained immunity and the response to intravesical BCG therapy for bladder cancer. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Oct 30;10(10):e1004485. PMID: 25356988

Saeed S, Quintin J, Netea MG, Stunnenberg HG et alEpigenetic programming of monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and trained innate immunity. Science. 2014 Sep 26;345(6204):1251086. PMID: 25258085

Cheng SC, Quintin J, Xavier RJ, Netea MG et almTOR- and HIF-1α-mediated aerobic glycolysis as metabolic basis for trained immunity. Science. 2014 Sep 26;345(6204):1250684. PMID: 25258083

Quintin J, Cheng SC, van der Meer JW, Netea MG. Innate immune memory: towards a better understanding of host defense mechanisms. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014 Aug;29:1-7. PMID: 24637148

Bekkering S, Quintin J, Netea MG, Riksen NP et alOxidized low-density lipoprotein induces long-term proinflammatory cytokine production and foam cell formation via epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014 Aug;34(8):1731-8. PMID: 24903093

Ifrim DC, Quintin J, van der Meer JW, Netea MG et alTrained immunity or tolerance: opposing functional programs induced in human monocytes after engagement of various pattern recognition receptors. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Apr;21(4):534-45. PMID: 24521784

Levy O, Netea MG. Innate immune memory: implications for development of pediatric immunomodulatory agents and adjuvanted vaccines. Pediatr Res. 2014 Jan;75(1-2):184-8. PMID: 24352476


Netea MG. Training innate immunity: the changing concept of immunological memory in innate host defence. Eur J Clin Invest. 2013 Aug;43(8):881-4. PMID: 23869409

Bekkering S, Joosten LA, Netea MG, Riksen NP et al. Trained innate immunity and atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2013 Dec;24(6):487-92. PMID: 24184939

Benn CS, Netea MG, Selin LK, Aaby P. A small jab - a big effect: nonspecific immunomodulation by vaccines. Trends Immunol. 2013 Sep;34(9):431-9. PMID: 23680130


Kleinnijenhuis J, Quintin J, van Crevel R, Netea MG et al. Bacille Calmette-Guerin induces NOD2-dependent nonspecific protection from reinfection via epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 23;109(43):17537-42. PMID: 22988082

Quintin J, Saeed S, Stunnenberg HG, Netea MG. Candida albicans infection affords protection against reinfection via functional reprogramming of monocytes. Cell Host Microbe. 2012 Aug 16;12(2):223-32. PMID: 22901542


Netea MG, Quintin J, van der Meer JW. Trained immunity: a memory for innate host defense. Cell Host Microbe. 2011 May 19;9(5):355-61. PMID: 21575907